PRETILOST: AMERIKANCI SU NEUHRANJENA NACIJA (III. DIO)

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Kad razmišljamo o neuhranjenosti, većina ljudi prvo pomisli na djecu u Africi. No, prilično je ironično da pretile osobe, unatoč povećanom unosu kalorija, po neuhranjenosti nisu daleko od te djece.

Prema meta-analizi objavljenoj 2015. godine kod pretilih osoba nedostatak vitamina D je za 35% veći nego kod osoba normalne tjelesne težine (1). To je vrlo zabrinjavajuće jer je nedostatak vitamina D povezan sa smanjenom razinom leptina – hormona koji potiskuje glad (2, 3) i otpornošću na inzulin (4, 5). Zbog toga energija, umjesto u mišiće i organe, odlazi u masno tkivo.

Slično je stanje i s drugim nutrijentima. Pretile osobe u prosjeku imaju dvostruko manje magnezija (6), čak 68% ima manjak bakra, 74% manjak cinka (7, 8), a mnogi imaju i značajan manjak vitamina A (9), vitamina C (10), vitamina B9 i B12 (11), željeza (9, 12, 13) i selenija (14).

I epidemiološka istraživanja potvrđuju da je upravo neuhranjenost najvažniji faktor koji dovodi do pretilosti. Ta istraživanja nedvosmisleno dokazuju da je povećana konzumacija jeftine i nutritivno osiromašene procesirane hrane glavni uzrok epidemije pretilosti (15, 16).

Očekivali bi da uklanjanje deficita nutrienata dovodi do mršavljenja - i to je zaista tako.

Primjerice, u istraživanju provedenom u Kini, pretile žene koje su uzimale dodatke prehrani tijekom šest mjeseci u prosjeku su izgubile 3.6 kilograma (17). Dva velika istraživanja provedena na više od 16 000 odnosno 38 000 ljudi tijekom 10 odnosno 28 godina pokazuju da je korištenje dodataka prehrani povezano s manjim rizikom od pretilosti (18, 19).

Kao što vidite, iza pretilosti krije se mnogo ozbiljniji problem od povećanog unosa kalorija i upravo iz tog razloga dijete ne funkcioniraju. Povećani apetit i rezultirajuća pretilost zapravo su obrambeni mehanizmi tijela. U slučaju deficita određenih nutrijenata tijelo različitim hormonskim promjenama povećava apetit kako bi osiguralo unos dovoljne količine tih nutrijenata. Naravno, što je taj deficit veći, bit ćemo prisiljeni konzumirati više hrane. Time unosimo i više kalorija koje tijelo sve teže uspijeva potrošiti i one se spremaju kao masno tkivo.

Pogreška je ta što, umjesto za boljom prehranom, često posežemo za najnovijim tabletama za mršavljenje i dijetama koje putem kalorijske restrikcije ili ekstremne, nebalansirane prehrane, uzrokuju još veći nedostatak nutrijenata. Ovo objašnjava zašto dijete imaju negativne posljedice za zdravlje, odnosno zašto dovode do povećanog rizika od dijabetesa, visokog krvnog tlaka i kardiovaskularnih bolesti (20).






REFERENCE:


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